jobs--- lists your currently active jobs (those that you put in the background) and their job numbers. Useful to determine which one you want to foreground if you have lots of them.
bg--- background a job after suspending it.
fg %jobnumber--- foreground a job
!!--- repeat the previous command (but
CTRL-p, is safer, because you have hit return in addition)
!pattern--- repeat the last command that starts with pattern
echo $VARIABLE--- shows the value of an environment variable
setenv--- lets you set environment variables. For example, if you typed a wrong value for the
TERMvariable when logging in, you don't have to log out and start over, but you can just do
setenv TERM vt100(or whatever). To see what all your environment variables are set to, type
env. The one that you're most likely to have to set is the
DISPLAYvariable, when using an X-display.
unset VAR--- lets you un-set environment variables. Useful, for example, if you've usually set
autologoutbut want to stay logged on for a while without typing for some reason, or if you set the
DISPLAYvariable automatically but want to avoid opening windows for some reason.
source filename--- you need to source your dotfiles after making changes for them to take effect (or log off and in again)
load--- will show you the load average graphically
ispell filename--- will check the spelling in your file. If you're running it on a LaTeX file use the
-Toption to tell it to ignore the LaTeX commands. You can create and use your own dictionary to avoid having it tell you that your own name, those of fellow linguists, and linguistics terminology are a typos in every paper you write.
weblint--- checks the syntax of html files
latex2html--- translates LaTeX files into HTML
wn word option--- lets you access the WordNet database and display, for example, synonyms, hypernyms, or hyponyms, depending on the option you select
Backspace--- delete previous character
CTRL-d--- delete next character
CTRL-k--- delete rest of line
CTRL-a--- go to start of line
CTRL-e--- go to end of line
CTRL-b--- go backwards without deleting
CTRL-f--- go forward without deleting
TAB--- complete filename or command up to the point of uniqueness
CTRL-u--- cancel whole line
CTRL-p--- show the last command typed, then the one before that, etc.
CTRL-n--- go forwards in the history of commands
CTRL-c--- cancel the processes after it has started
CTRL-z--- suspend a running process (e.g. in order to do something else in between)
CTRL-l--- redraws the screen
|(piping) --- Lets you execute any number of commands in a sequence.
ls | more--- will show you one screenful at a time, which is useful with any command that will produce a lot of output, e.g. also
man ls | grep time--- checks whether the man page for
lshas something to say about listing files by time - very useful when you have a suspicion some command may be capable of doing what you want, but you aren't sure.
ls -lR | grep dvi--- will show you all your dvi files - useful to solve disk space problems, since they're large and usually can be deleted.
Some policies on turing
Other UNIX pages